Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, risk factors, and outcome trials: comparisons with cardiovascular disease.
Ramsey SD., Hobbs FDR.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem and now ranks fifth in terms of the global burden of disease. Although COPD is a disease that is characterized by progressive respiratory symptoms and functional decline, exacerbations pose the greatest risk for morbidity and early mortality, have a dramatic effect on quality of life, and are the most significant source of health care expenditure. To improve survival and reduce costs, it is critical to develop effective programs designed to reduce the frequency and severity of exacerbations for these patients. With limited health care resources, efficient and effective management of COPD ideally involves identifying and focusing efforts on individuals at particular risk. In the development of an appropriate multimodal strategy, lessons could be learned from the evolution of guidelines and management of cardiovascular disease, in particular heart failure, which has many parallels with COPD in terms of prevalence, prognosis, and impact on patient quality of life. There is a need for large prospective trials in COPD, based on hard clinical outcomes such as death, which, together with physician and patient education, will help to drive improvements in clinical management.