Impact of age and gender on blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction: results of a pooled analysis.
Feldman RD., Flack J., Howes L., Jenssen T., Reeves R., Shi H., Westergaard M., Hobbs FDR., GEMINI US, GEMINI AALA, JEWEL 1 and 2 and CAPABLE investigators None.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the simultaneous reduction of blood pressure (BP) to below 150 mmHg and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) after treatment with single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (SPAA) among younger (<65 years), older (≥65 years) and elderly (≥75 years) men and women with hypertension and dyslipidemia. METHODS: Data from five, 14-20-week, open-label, multi-national studies (GEMINI US, GEMINI-Australia, Asia, Latin-America, Africa/Middle-East [AALA], JEWEL 1, JEWEL 2, and the Clinical Utility of Caduet in Simultaneously Achieving Blood Pressure and Lipid End Points [CAPABLE]) were pooled. In these studies, SPAA (5/10 to 10/80 mg/mg) was electively titrated to achieve study-specific targets. Reductions in BP and LDL-C, and changes in renal and liver function tests, fasting glucose and adverse event (AE) rates were compared across the three age groups. RESULTS: A total of 3613 patients (65%) were <65 years, 1946 (35%) were ≥65 years and 441 (8%) were ≥75 years. Baseline mean systolic BP tended to increase with age and diastolic BP and LDL-C decreased, p<0.001. Final mean SPAA dose was similar (7.2/23.9, 7.1/24.3, 7.1/24.0 mg/mg). Final mean BP in the younger/older/elderly groups was 128.1/79.9, 131.3/75.0, 132.8/73.4 mmHg (adjusted BP reductions -20.2/-10.4, -18.6/-12.7, -17.7/-13.2 mmHg, p<0.001). Final mean LDL-C was 91, 87, 87 mg/dl (2.4, 2.3, 2.3 mmol/l) p<0.001; adjusted %LDL-C reductions -27.1, -26.8, -26.4, p<0.001. Estimated glomerular filtration rate increased in the younger group but decreased in the older and elderly groups (p=0.005). Small increases in liver function tests and fasting glucose were observed. Discontinuations due to AEs tended to increase with age but were low in all groups (6.2%, 7.9%, 8.8%, p=0.045). Study limitations include post hoc analysis and short duration of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous reduction of BP to below 150 mmHg and LDL-C using SPAA is both effective and well-tolerated among younger and older men and women, including those aged≥75 years. Clinicians may be reassured by the low proportion of AEs that led to discontinuation in all groups suggesting that older patients were not disadvantaged by this treatment.