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Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal).

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of hypertension

Publication Date





1665 - 1677


aHypertension Center STRIDE-7, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Third Department of Medicine, Sotiria Hospital, Athens, Greece bDepartment of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca cDepartment of Cardiovascular Neural and Metabolic Sciences, S.Luca Hospital, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy dFirst Department of Cardiology, Hippokration Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens eFourth Department of Medicine, Evangelismos General Hospital, Athens, Greece fFoundation-Medical Research Institutes (F-MRI), France gDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia hGeriatric Department University Hospital of Nancy, FHU CARTAGE and INSERM U1116 Université de Lorraine, France iUniversité Paris Descartes, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, France jIRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy kDepartment of Medicine, University of Barcelona & Hypertension Unit, Hospital Mutua Terrassa, Spain lStroke and Hypertension Unit, Connolly Hospital, Dublin, Ireland mBaker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia nDepartment of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Japan oDivision of Cardiovascular Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan pHypertension Center, 3rd Department of Medicine, Papageorgiou Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece qDepartment of Clinical Therapeutics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Alexandra Hospital, Greece rNuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, UK sESH Excellence Centre, Kerckhoff Clinic Bad, Nauheim, Germany tNorthern Sydney Local Health District & University of Sydney, Australia uDivision of Cardiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada vDepartment of Heal


Humans, Blood Pressure Determination, Blood Pressure, Societies, Medical, Europe, Practice Guidelines as Topic