Digital Interventions to Promote Self-Management in Adults With Hypertension: Protocol for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
McLean G., Murray E., Band R., Saunderson K., Hanlon P., Little P., McManus RJ., Yardley L., Mair FS.
BACKGROUND: Digital interventions, defined as any intervention accessed and taking input from patients in the form of a computer/Web-based program or mobile phoned-based app, can potentially help empower patients to self-manage long-term conditions such as hypertension. Importantly, digital interventions have the potential to provide patients with personalized information and support for active involvement in treatment as well as cost saving. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize the evidence for using digital interventions to support patient self-management of hypertension, and determine their impact on control and reduction of blood pressure, other clinical outcomes, quality of life, medication adherence, health service utilization, and economic benefits. METHODS: A systematic search of bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO will be undertaken. Abstracts and citations will be independently screened by 2 researchers against predetermined inclusion criteria. Any disagreements will be resolved by discussion and further consideration of the inclusion criteria. Only randomized controlled trials which have been published in peer peer-reviewed journals with a diagnosis of hypertension will be considered. Inclusion criteria will be (1) adults (age ≥ 18 years) with hypertension (as defined by the primary authors); (2) an interactive digital intervention compared with usual care; and (3) outcomes of objectively measured change in blood pressure. Data extraction from identified articles will be undertaken by 2 independent reviewers using a uniform template. The main outcomes are systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and quality of life indicators. Secondary outcomes include cost- effectiveness, medication adherence, emotional well-being, and physical activity. Risk of bias of included studies will be assessed using the Cochrane tool. RESULTS: Our research is currently ongoing. Data will be summarized narratively, and if possible, meta-analyses will be performed to assess the impact of the interventions on outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: By summarizing and synthesizing available data, this review will help inform policy on the use of digital interventions for self-management of hypertension and will clarify areas for further research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospero 2014: CRD42014010268; http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp? ID=CRD42014010268 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6c5alQQJL).